Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Among Low- and Middle- Income Households (SEEDS II)

Building on findings from research on strategies that moved the needle on rooftop solar installations, Yale is working with partner organizations to explore ways to broaden the appeal of solar power to a mass market, including low- and moderate-income households.


Building from recent research testing strategies and messages that are most conducive to solar adoption, this new project seeks to develop more effective ways to communicate with low- and moderate-income (LMI) communities about solar.

Defined as annual household income below $50,000 and between $50,000-$75,000, respectively, LMI communities forego solar for any number of reasons—financing issues, lack of access to capital, limited information, the complexities associated with installations on multi-family dwellings, low homeownership rates. We are interested in how peer-to-peer and on-the-ground community campaigns might be applied to overcome these challenges.

This project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative.

About the Partnership

The project is funded by the DOE’s Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies (SEEDS) program and will involve several partners, including:

About the SunShot Initiative

The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative is a national effort to drive down the cost of solar electricity and support solar adoption. SunShot aims to make solar energy a low cost electricity source for all Americans through research and development efforts in collaboration with public and private partners. Learn more at

In the News

Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies: "Yale-Led Project to Widen Access to Household Solar Receives Federal Grant"

Academic Publications

Diffusion of New Products with Recovering Consumers - G. Fibich (2017)

White Papers

Assessing the Value of Distributed Solar (Harari and Kaufman, Sept 2017)

Research Review on Residential Solar Access: Barriers and Solutions for Low and Moderate Income Communities (Bovarnick and Johnson, Oct 2017)


Barriers and Solutions to Low and Moderate-Income Solar Adoption

Broadening the appeal of solar power to low- and moderate-income households

Accelerating Residential Solar, Does Messaging Matter?

Solar in the Ocean State

A New Collaboration Promotes Healthy Solar Growth in Connecticut

People & Partners